Most vehicles, with the notable exception of railed vehicles, have at least one steering mechanism. Wheeled vehicles steer by angling their front or rear wheels. The B-52 Stratofortress has a special arrangement in which all four main wheels can be angled. Skids can also be used to steer by angling them, as in the case of a snowmobile. Ships, boats, submarines, dirigibles and aeroplanes usually have a rudder for steering. On an airplane, ailerons are used to bank the airplane for directional control, sometimes assisted by the rudder.
With no power applied, most vehicles come to a stop due to friction. But it is often required to stop a vehicle faster than by friction alone: so almost all vehicles are equipped with a braking system. Wheeled vehicles are typically equipped with friction brakes, which use the friction between brake pads and brake rotors to slow the vehicle.
Many airplanes have high performance versions of the same system in their landing gear for use on the ground. The Space Shuttle also uses frictional brakes on its wheels. As well as frictional brakes, hybrid/electric cars, trolleybuses and electric bicycles can also use regenerative brakes to recycle some of the vehicle's potential energy. High-speed trains sometimes use frictionless Eddy-current brakes.
Parachutes are used to slow down vehicles travelling very fast. Parachutes have been used in land, air and space vehicles such as the ThrustSSC, Eurofighter Typhoon and Apollo Command Module.
In aircraft, air brakes are aerodynamic surfaces that create friction, with the air flow causing the vehicle to slow. These are usually implemented as flaps that oppose air flow when extended and are flush with aircraft when retracted. Reverse thrust is also used in many aeroplane engines. On aircraft carriers, arresting gears are used to stop an aircraft. Pilots may even apply full forward throttle on touchdown, in case the arresting gear does not catch and a go around is needed.